CBD has numerous medical uses, and is currently being used by a great multitude of people from all levels of society across the Globe, each one treating a particular medical condition or health issue. For that very reason we have decided to highlight certain which will answer the question, “How does CBD work?”
If you would like to find out more about the benefits that CBD has in relation to your particular condition, this is the right place to be. However, before you decide to make use of CBD for any given medical condition, it is of the utmost importance to familiarize yourself with its modus operandi.
Active Compound Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol or CBD, which is the active compound in hemp, is unique in the sense that, unlike THC, it does not feature psychoactive (or narcotic) properties.
Due to the absence of this feature, it is possible to utilize the healing properties of Cannabis without getting high.
The reason for this difference between the two substances is the fact that, while THC directly interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the body, CBD follows a rather indirect approach towards the receptors.
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Endocannabinoids – How does CBD work
Sensations in the mind and body are controlled by cannabinoid receptors, which are designed to interact with Cannabinoids in plants, which are in turn produced by the brain for use in the body according to necessity.
A few of the common sensations which are under the control of cannabinoid receptors include appetite, mood, pain, sensation, and memory.
These receptors are primarily divided into two major categories termed CB1 and CB2. And they are designed to interact with the natural Endocannabinoids, which are naturally produced by the brain inside the human body.
There are times that the body needs extra protection against the sensations (appetite, mood, pain, sensation, memory and more) in which case they can respond and be stimulated by Exocannabinoids such as those which are produced by plants, for example Hemp and Echinacea.
Learn more about:
- What is the Endocannabinoid System? Human Cannabinoid System
- The Endocannabinoid System – As a therapeutic target
CB1 & CB2 Receptors
While the CB2 receptors are a major feature of the immune system, CB1 receptors are commonly found in the central nervous system and a small proportion may also be a part of the kidneys, lungs, or liver.
A few of the common functions performed by the CB1 receptor include the release of neurotransmitters (also commonly known as Cannabis products).
These neurotransmitters are known to produce the psychoactive effect which refers to the maintenance of the body’s homeostasis via taking part in lipogenesis occurring inside the liver, as well as sensations like pleasure, memory, appetite, concentration, and pain tolerance.
On the other hand, CB2 receptors are primarily involved in controlling the prominent features of the immune system such as apoptosis or immune suppression.
It has been established that CB2 fulfils an indispensable function in modulating the pain sensation.
CB2 is also known to play a crucial role in a whole range of diseases from liver and kidney problems to neurodegenerative disorders.
CBD & THC
The mode of action of CBD differs remarkably from the modus operandi of THC in the sense that it is not involved in direct stimulation of the aforementioned receptors. The primary impact of CBD is felt on other receptors such as Serotonin, Adenosine, and Vanilloid.
For instance, the stimulation of TRPV-1 receptor by CBD mediates a variety of processes including inflammation, body temperature, and pain perception.
Moreover, CBD is also known to cause an inhibition in the functioning of FAAH enzyme that directly acts on the CB1 receptor and enables THC to produce its psychoactive effect.
Cannabidiol (CBD), which is a non-psychoactive Cannabinoid found in Cannabis, has established a global interest among professionals such as scientists and physicians, as well as within the general citizenship of almost every country in the world in recent years.
The reason for this interest is the fact that it exerts its healing properties without any psychoactive effect whatsoever being present.
How exactly CBD does this on a molecular level is still being widely researched, but it has been established that, besides the fact that it interacts with CB1 and CB2 in a manner that differs widely from the method used by THC, it is also a pleiotropic drug that reaches many of its effects by means of multiple molecular pathways.
- CBD & THC – Cannabidiol & Tetrahydrocannabinol
- CBD vs THC effects – CBD for too much THC
- CBD to THC Ratio – What is the best CBD : THC Ratio?
Receptor System Involved in CBD´s Potential Therapeutic Application
Although CBD does not really bind with either of the two Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), it does activate certain non-cannabinoid receptors. It also acts via numerous channels that act completely independent of any receptors, for example, by means of causing a delay in the “re-uptake” of internal neurotransmitters such as Anandamide and Adenosine.
It also enhances or inhibits the binding action of specific receptors such as G-coupled protein receptors. Some of the many ways in which CBD endorses its multitudinous therapeutic effects are:
CBD & Adenosine receptors
The anti-anxiety or anti-inflammatory impact of CBD is mainly associated with the activation of Adenosine receptor. By stimulating adenosine, CBD promotes the release of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitters.
Processes like motor control, cognition, motivation, and reward mechanism are associated with the release of dopamine, while glutamate is involved in learning, memory formation, excitatory signals and cognition.
- CBD Oil for Anxiety – Cannabidiol & Anxiety Disorders
- CBD Oil for Inflammation – CBD Anti-Inflammatory Properties
CBD & Serotonin
But these are not all the functions that are performed by CBD inside the human body. It is also involved in the stimulation of 5-HT1A serotonin receptor that is known to produce the anti-depressant effect. This receptor is common to a huge range of other processes such as appetite, pain perception, nausea, anxiety, and addiction mechanisms.
Last but not the least, it has also been found that CBD has a tendency to reduce the proliferation of the cancerous cells and bone reabsorption via inhibition of GPR55 signaling.
GPR55 is dominant inside the brain and has been associated with vital processes like controlling the blood pressure, modulating the bone density, and preventing the proliferation of cancerous cells.
PPARs – nuclear receptor
CBD also manifests as an anti-cancer treatment by activating PPARs, also known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, which are found on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. Activation of a receptor referred to as known as PPAR-gamma has an ability to induce the regression of tumors in human lung cancer cell lines.
By activating PPAR-gamma amyloid-beta plaque, which is a key molecule linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease is degraded. Because of this, Cannabidiol may be a useful remedy for treating Alzheimer’s in patients.
Genes that influence processes such as energy homeostasis, lipid uptake, insulin sensitivity, and other metabolic functions are also regulated by PPAR receptors. For the reason, diabetics may benefit by engaging into CBD-rich treatment.
- How CBD affects the Brain – The Neurological Effects Of Cannabidiol
- CBD Effects & the Importance of Homeostasis for the Human Body
CBD as a reuptake inhibitor
One may wonder how CBD, which is an exogenous plant Cannabinoid, manages to enter a human cell and bind to a nuclear receptor. The process is quite intricate, and at the same time very simple.
The Cannabinoid has to pass through the membrane of the cell by attaching to a Fatty Acid Binding Protein. This protein accompanies certain lipid molecules into the cell’s interior.
These intracellular molecules also transport Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as well as the brain’s own marijuana-like molecules, the Endocannabinoids Anandamide and 2AG, to their specific targets within the cell.
CBD and THC both control receptors on the surface of the mitochondria as well as the nucleus of the cell. Cannabidiol, is strongly linked to three kinds of FABPs, and it also competes with our Endocannabinoids, which are fatty acids, for the same transport molecules.
Once inside the cell, Anandamide is broken down by FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) which is a metabolic enzyme. FAAH is a natural part of the cell’s molecular life cycle.
But CBD interferes with this process by reducing Anandamide’s access to FABP transport molecules, thereby delaying Endocannabinoid passage into the cell’s interior.
No psychoactive effect with CBD
It is to be kept in mind at all times that CBD does not produce any psychoactive effect. This desirable feature makes it more preferable over THC for the purpose of treating a medical condition.
Moreover, the beneficial impact of CBD is in no way associated with the presence of THC. This is why the health benefits can still be relished if you choose to purchase a product that completely lacks THC but not CBD.
CBD Consumption & Impact – How does CBD work?
It is important to mention the fact that several factors define the time in which CBD will begin to produce an impact on the human body. Such factors may include but are not limited to the dosage, the symptom against which it is taken, and the mode of consumption.
Provided that you have a Vape Starter Kit, it would be a good idea to vape the Hemp oil since it is not only the safest and the most convenient mode of consumption, but it is also the most efficient one.
The second fastest method for the consumption of CBD is sublingually, which produces relief within minutes.
However, if you would like to enjoy the benefits of CBD over a long period of time, you must ensure that it is consumed slowly and uniformly. Under such circumstances, it would be wise to use a topical CBD Oil containing product.
Taken orally, you shouldn’t expect an effect until after around 30-60 minutes. For the most efficient outcome via the oral route of consumption, make sure that you consume it on an empty stomach.
Finally, should you want to keep the rare but possible side effects of CBD consumptions such as dysphoria or headaches at bay, it is advisable to add the CBD oil to your drink or food. While it will take longer to produce the effect, it will ensure that you don’t experience any inconvenient side effects.
Now that you are familiar with how CBD works inside your body, you are in a much better place to make an informed decision regarding its consumption and utilization.